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  • 18-Jun-2012 12:30 EDT

Catalyzed Particulate Filter Passive Oxidation Study with ULSD and Biodiesel Blended Fuel


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A 2007 Cummins ISL 8.9L direct-injection common rail diesel engine rated at 272 kW (365 hp) was used to load the filter to 2.2 g/L and passively oxidize particulate matter (PM) within a 2007 OEM aftertreatment system consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) and catalyzed particulate filter (CPF). Having a better understanding of the passive NO2 oxidation kinetics of PM within the CPF allows for reducing the frequency of active regenerations (hydrocarbon injection) and the associated fuel penalties. Being able to model the passive oxidation of accumulated PM in the CPF is critical to creating accurate state estimation strategies. The MTU 1-D CPF model will be used to simulate data collected from this study to examine differences in the PM oxidation kinetics when soy methyl ester (SME) biodiesel is used as the source of fuel for the engine.

A test procedure developed by Hutton et al. [1, 2] was modified to improve the ability to model the experimental data and provide additional insight into passive oxidized PM in a CPF. A test protocol and plan was developed to allow PM oxidation rates by NO2 to be determined from engine test cell data. An experimental matrix consisting of CPF inlet temperatures from 250 to 450 �C with varying NOX/PM from 25 to 583and NO2/PM ratios from 5 to 240 was used.

SME biodiesel was volumetrically blended with ULSD in 10% (B10) and 20% (B20) portions. This blended fuel was then used to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on passive oxidation rates. Four tests were performed with B10 and four tests with B20. Gathering data to determine the effect of fuel type (ULSD and biodiesel blends) on PM oxidation is the primary goal. Data from fifteen tests completed with ultra low sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuel and one additional engine platform is used to compare to results from SME biodiesel tests [1, 2].

The experimental reaction rates during passive oxidation varied based upon the average CPF temperature, NO2 concentrations, and the NOX/PM ratios for each engine and with all fuels. The data collected is directly comparable to ULSD data from prior experimental tests [1, 2], but requires a high fidelity model that includes NO2 and thermal oxidation mechanisms and back diffusion to determine the details of the PM oxidation process.

Kenneth Lee Shiel, Michigan Technological University

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Manganese oxides show high catalytic activity for CO and HC oxidation without including platinum group metals (PGM). However, there are issues with both thermal stability and resistance to sulfur poisoning. We have studied perovskite-type YMnO3 (YMO) with the aim of simultaneously achieving both activity and durability. This paper describes the oxidation activity of PGM-free Ag/i-YMO, which is silver supported on improved-YMO (i-YMO). The Ag/i-YMO was obtained by the following two methods. First, Mn4+ ratio and specific surface area of YMO were increased by optimizing composition and preparation method. Second, the optimum amount of silver was supported on i-YMO. In model gas tests and engine bench tests, the Ag/i-YMO catalyst showed the same level of activity as that of the conventional Pt/?-Al2O3 (Pt = 3.0 g/L). In addition, there was no degradation with respect to either heat treatment (700°C, 90 h, air) or sulfur treatment (600°C to 200°C, total 60 h, 30 ppm SO2).
This paper reports results of an experimental investigation performed on a commercial diesel engine supplied with fuel blends having low cetane number to attain a simultaneous reduction in NOx and smoke emissions. Blends of 20% and 40% of n-butanol in conventional diesel fuel have been tested, comparing engine performance and emissions to diesel ones. Taking advantage of the fuel blend higher resistance to auto ignition, it was possible to extend the range in which a premixed combustion is achieved. This allowed to match the goal of a significant reduction in emissions without important penalties in fuel consumption. The experimental activity was carried on a turbocharged, water cooled, 4 cylinder common rail DI diesel engine. The engine equipment included an exhaust gas recirculation system controlled by an external driver, a piezo-quartz pressure transducer to detect the in-cylinder pressure signal and a current probe to acquire the energizing current to the injector.
The fatty acid methyl esters (FAME's) - in Europe mostly RME (Rapeseed methyl ester) - are used in several countries as alternative biogene Diesel fuels in various blending ratios with fossil fuels (Bxx). Questions often arise about the influences of these biocomponents on the modern exhaust aftertreatment systems and especially on the regeneration of Diesel particle filters (DPF). In the present work different regeneration procedures of DPF systems were investigated with biofuels B0, B20 & B100. The tested regeneration procedures were: passive regenerations: DOC + CSF; CSF alone, active regenerations: standstill burner; fuel injections & DOC. During each regeneration on-line measurements of regulated and unregulated emission components (nanoparticles & FTIR) were conducted. It can be stated that the increased portion of RME in fuel provokes longer time periods to charge the filter with soot.

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