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2012-03-23
Video
: Fiber Placement equipment has historically been very large and very expensive. Therefore, the AFP process has been mostly exclusive to the larger aerospace companies of the world. In order to achieve more widespread use of the AFP process, a wider variety of machine configurations must be offered and cost of the equipment must be decreased. Commercially available, articulated robotic arms have been identified as an attractive, low cost option for AFP machine platforms. However, incorporating AFP material delivery technology with robotic arms has many challenges. These challenges relate to both hardware and software issues. This presentation will address the technical challenges of using robots as a machine platform for the AFP process and review the current status of this composites lamination equipment technology. Presenter Frederic Challois, Coriolis Composites
2012-03-23
Video
In Aeronautic industry, when we launch a new industrialization for an aircraft sub assembly we always have the same questions in mind for drilling operations, especially when focusing on lean manufacturing. How can we avoid dismantling and deburring parts after drilling operation? Can a drilling centre perform all the tasks needed to deliver a hole ready to install final fastener? How can we decrease down-time of the drilling centre? Can a drilling centre be integrated in a pulse assembly line? How can we improve environmental efficiency of a drilling centre? It is based on these main drivers that AIRBUS has developed, with SPIE and SOS, a new generation of drilling centre dedicated for hard materials such as titanium, and high thicknesses. The first application was for the assembly of the primary structure of A350 engine pylons. The main solution that was implemented meeting several objectives was the development of orbital drilling technology in hard metal stacks. Indeed, like in other materials (CFRP, Aluminum) this drilling process provides a lot of advantages.
2012-03-23
Video
This article characterizes the special features of drilling of CFRP/Titanium and -Aluminium stacks. Simplified theoretic models will show how CFRP/Titanium stacks should be machined without scratches and burn marks contacting carbon. Low axial forces and smart chip removal technology are the main characteristics of the drilling tool technology, optimized to reach H8 quality in one shot operation. Presenter Peter Mueller-Hummel, Cutting Tools Inc.
2012-03-23
Video
In a variety of industries there is a growing need to manufacture high quality carbon fibre epoxy matrix composite structures at greater production rates and lower costs than has historically been the case. This has developed into a desire for the automation of the manufacture of components, and in particular the lay-up phase, with Automated Tape Laying (ATL) and Fibre Placement (AFP) the most popular choices. When used for large primary structures there are such potential gains to be had that both techniques have seen rapid implementation into manufacturing environments. But significant concerns remain and these have limited their wider adoption into secondary structure manufacturing, where manual forming of woven broadgoods is dominant. As a result the manufacture of secondary structures is generally explored for costs reduction through drape simulation and lower cost materials. Improvements in lay-up quality and yield are possible, but the effect of this approach on productivity and build costs has perhaps been under explored.
2012-03-23
Video
Presented by: Dan Ott Web Industries Director, Business Development, Advanced Composites Market With the growth of Fiber Placement technology as a preferred automation technology in aerospace manufacturing and the rapid growth of new production line installations, it is crucial to provide material in a form which meets all necessary specifications and supports the optimum productivity available from this major capital investment made by the producer of the parts. Achieving these goals happnes when the part designer, AFP machine builder, and the slit tape producer design the best process and format which provides smooth, efficient and rapid delivery of the prepreg slit tape to the Fiber Placement laydown head. Tape size (width), slit width tolerance, spool shape and size, density of prepreg on the spool, spool change-over and handling processes all play a factor in productivity, and creating (or inhibiting) the best ROI on a full-scale AFP production line. This presentation benchmarks current slit-tape and spool specifications, including lessons learned regarding off-machine material handling, maximizing spool performance in the creel box and slit tape transport to the head, prepreg material issues impacting the ST process, and improved production methods to maximize yields and drive improved unit costs.
2012-03-23
Video
At the end of 2006, two MTorres engineers visited the plant of Airbus UK in Filton receiving a new challenge: Find a more efficient way to manufacture Carbon Fiber Spars for the new A350 program. The range of possibilities were wide: manual infusion methods (RTM, RIM, RFI...), Automatic Taping & hot forming, or the new technology proposed, Fiberplacement or AFP. Two (2) options were considered: hot forming+ATL and AFP (both using prepeg technology.) The usage of a flat lay-up + hot forming technology was used in the only Airbus program that used carbon fiber for the wing manufacturing so far, the A400M. The expected greater complexity of A350 spar created doubts on the feasibility of using the above process, while the AFP technology, consisting of laying up directly on the final shape of the spar, also raised questions of technical feasibility, apart from the economic ?business case?, in case the productivity of the cell was not big enough. A ?Spar team? was created within Airbus and MTorres, to ?
2012-03-23
Video
With the increased demand for high volume, cost-effective, fiber-reinforced thermoplastic parts, the lack of high throughput systems has become more pronounced. Thermoforming as a method to generate complex shapes from a flat preform is dependable and fast. In order to use readily available, standard unidirectional impregnated thermoplastic tape in this process, a flat perform must be created prior to the thermoforming step. Formerly, creating the preform by hand layup was a time consuming and therefore costly, step. Fiberforge�?s patented RELAY� technology overcomes the challenges of handling thermoplastic prepreg tape and provides a solution through the automated creation of a flat preform, referred to as a Tailored Blank?. Producing a part for thermoforming with accurate ply orientation and scrap minimization is now as simple as loading a material spool followed by a pressing a start button. Presenter Christina McClard, Fiberforge
2012-03-22
Video
Electroimpact Automatic Fiber Placement (AFP) machines lay-up composite parts by accurately placing carbon fiber tow (strips of impregnated carbon fiber) on a mould. In order to achieve high accuracy at high speeds, the processes of feeding and cutting tows must be tuned. Historically, the tuning has been a time-consuming, manual process. This paper will present a methodology to replace manual measurements with an automated laser, improve measurement speed by an order of magnitude, improve accuracy from +/? 0.020? (manual) to +/? 0.015? (laser), and eliminate human error. Presenter Joshua Cemenska, Electroimpact Inc.
2012-03-22
Video
The aerospace industry has long sought a solution for storing maintenance history information directly on aircraft parts. In 2005 leading airframe manufacturers determined that passive Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology presented a unique opportunity to address this industry need. Through the efforts of the Air Transport Association (ATA) RFID on Parts Committee and SAE International testing standards and data specifications are in place to support the broad adoption of passive RFID for storing parts history information directly on aircraft parts. The primary focus of the paper will be on the SAE AS-5678 environmental testing standard for passive RFID tags intended for aircraft use. Detail will be provided to help aerospace manufacturers understand their role and responsibilities for current programs and understand how this may impact their parts certification process. Also covered will be the ATA Spec2000 Chapter 9-5 data specification and details on how parts maintenance history will be stored and shared using passive RFID tags on aircraft parts.
2012-03-21
Video
The use of silane chemistries tailored to promote the adhesion of performance and appearance coatings to metal substrates are requiring new methodologies for measuring, approving, and implementing on commercial aircraft. Engineering performance, lean manufacturing, environmental and employee safety considerations are driving the commercial aerospace industry to replace long standing conversion coating materials and processes. Tailored silane chemistries such as Boegel are being considered for many of these applications. Silanes work by reacting with metal oxides providing a strong covalent bond, cross linking to form a tough barrier and have an organic functional group tailored to react with the specific resin system in the subsequent coating. Traditionally conversion coatings such as anodize and chromate conversion coating performance is validated based on meeting standalone requirements. Since tailored silanes are optimized to enhance adhesion, they rely on the subsequent coatings to provide corrosion protection; the overall performance is based on the entire coating system and not standalone characteristics.
2012-03-21
Video
All Semi Vendors do have multi core CPUs in their portfolio and adding new devices every day. This is the only possibility to grow performance and fulfill Moore's law. Multi core offers a wide variety of possibilities to reduce hardware complexity, reduce power consumption, shrink board space, expand functionality and performance. On the other hand the software complexity goes up and this directly affects the ability to achieve a certified system. The main trend as of today and in the future is the rising number of cores in a single chip and the increasing functionality of the software. As this trend does not stop at safety critical systems, the System/Solution Architects have to question themselves how to guarantee data integrity, robustness, robust portioning, avoid multi point of failures and race conditions. This presentation will highlight ideas, do's and don'ts for those who will design a safety critical multi Core system today or in the near future. The hardware design and the RTOS design has to go hand in hand to guarantee a effective use of the CPU performance and to assure certifiable safety critical system.
2012-03-21
Video
In recent years, all major microprocessor manufacturers are transitioning towards the deploymenet of multiple processing cores on every chip. These multi-core architectures represent the industry consensus regarding the most effective utilization of available silicon resources to satisfy growing demands for processing and memory capacities. Porting off-the-shelf software capabilities to multi-core architectures often requires significant changes to data structures and algorithms. When developing new software capabilities specifically for deployment on SMP architectures, software engineers are required to address specific multi-core programming issues, and in the ideal, must do so in ways that are generic to many different multi-core target platforms. This talk provides an overview of the special considerations that must be addressed by software engineers targeting multi-core platforms and describes how the Java language facilitates solutions to these special challenges. The talk includes special emphasis on mission-critical and real-time configurations of the Java virtual machine on SMP hardware.
2012-03-21
Video
The increasing complexity of aerospace products and programs and the growing competitive pressure is facilitating the aggregation of small, medium and large enterprises of certain geographical regions into more integrated and collaborative entities (clusters). Clusters are by their same nature formed by heterogeneous companies, with huge differences not only in size but also for their core competences: such a diversity is a strength of the cluster, but it also increases its complexity. The purpose of this paper is to describe a benchmarking methodology that can be adopted to assess the performances of companies belonging to a cluster from different perspectives: economics and financials, competitive differentiators, specific know how, business strategies, production and logistic effectiveness, quality of core and supporting processes. The methodology is based upon a questionnaire organized in 11 sections and more than 380 questions; over 75% of such questions require a discrete answer (boolean, number, percentage, pick list, vote) while only a minority are in free text format.
2012-03-21
Video
The Java language is now the most popular programming language for the creation of new software capabilities. Its popularity has resulted in signficant economies of scale, with Java adopted as the primary language of instructional within many university curriculums, an abundance of reusable Java software components and Java software development tools available both from commercial suppliers and as open source technology, a large pool of competent Java developers from which to recruit staff, and a general willingness by senior staff software engineers to invest the effort required to learn this new programming language and technology. This talk describes the special approaches recommended for the use of Java in safety-critical deployments. The talk surveys the current state of the draft JSR-302 Safety Critical Java Specification and describes related experiences with commercially available technologies based on the constraints of early JSR-302 design discussions. Unlike traditional Java, the JSR-302 safety-critical subset of Java uses stack memory allocation instead of a garbage collected heap.
2012-03-21
Video
Many manufacturing companies want to apply AFP technology to complex high-curvature part shapes. As new AFP machine technologies are developed to specifically apply material over complex shapes, new and innovative NC programming approaches are needed to successfully, reliably, and accurately apply material with good consolidation, while meeting the fiber direction and coverage requirements. A big issue with AFP is the production rate vs. part complexity. Most complex shapes can be created with a single .125? wide strip (tow) of material. But the production time would be impractically long. So machine builders create 6, 8, 16, even 32 tow AFP heads, and use the widest tow possible for the highest laydown rates. But then wide compaction rollers on these systems have difficulty consolidating material over curved surfaces, and the minimum steering radius of wider tows challenge the software?s ability to meet the layup requirements. This presentation will show how machine independent off-line programming software can help to develop efficient AFP processes by allowing rapid creation of several virtual layups in order to determine the best strategy.
2012-03-21
Video
With the increase of functions in the next generation of aircrafts, it has become very important to address reconfigurability. The bottom line is that space and weight available for critical computers in an aircraft remain mostly unchanged. These new functions imply more computation power and so more redundant elements for safety. CPU power has been increased but the latest evolution with the new multi-core CPU's introduces additional difficulties in terms of certification. IMA first generation was the first answer to address some of these problems by enabling the concentration of several certified critical functions in the same physical computer. However, up to now, such implementations were very static and did not scale very well with the increase of functions need for the next generation aircraft. That?s why the avionics industry is looking for improvement of existing solutions and must work on what would be the next generation of IMA (IMA-NG). Some effort in this area already exists, such as SCARLETT, a European FP7 funded project, referring to IMA second generation (IMA2G), to go even further by introducing dynamic reconfiguration features.
2012-03-21
Video
In any new aircraft development program there are many important design decisions that determine profitability potential. The key to making new aircraft profitable is to design features that will command more money than the cost to provide them within the market's ability to absorb them. The business model in this paper shows how to predict or find: 1) the costs to provide various aircraft features; 2) the values that aircraft buyers place on these features; 3) the amount of money that buyers have to commit to them, 4) the open spaces in the market in which to place new designs and 5) the predicted profits from new designs. In this process, this paper extends previous work on the law of value and demand, which states that attributes determine value; value determines price; and that price determines demand. This four-dimensional, non-negative system hosts a business model that describes the features needed to enable aircraft designs to go from concepts to profitable assembly lines. Demand, cost and price, along with relevant constraints, form a market described by statistically significant equations bounded by technical, financial and legal limits.
2012-03-21
Video
A significant step is achieved on the flight control actuation system toward the more electrical aircraft through the Airbus A380, A400M and the A350 development phase ongoing. The A380/A400M/A350 features a mixed flight control actuation power source distribution, associating electrically powered actuators with conventional FlyByWire hydraulic servocontrols. In the scope of the preparation of the future Airbus Aircraft, this paper presents the perspectives of the use of the EMA technologies for the flight control systems in the more electrical aircraft highlighting the main technical challenges need to treat: jamming susceptibility, ?on board? maintenance reduction, Operational reliability increase, power electronics and power management optimization, and regarding the environmental constraints, the predicted performances; the benefits associated to the optimized utilization of on-board power sources. On the 4th of January 2011, an aileron EMA was successful flown on Airbus A320 MSN1.
2012-03-21
Video
The present work aims at the reduction of transmission delay at the level of AFDX ES (Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet End-Systems). To this end, two approaches, namely Network Calculus and response time analysis (RTA), are employed in the computation of upper bound delay. To evaluate the delay regarding different scheduling policies, the arrival curve of the flow on output of ES is established for given traffic shaping algorithm and service mode. Computational analysis shows that Bandwidth Allocation Gap (BAG) based scheduling is the optimal policy at the level of AFDX ES, which leads to the tightest output arrival curve among all possible scheduling policies. BAG-based scheduling consists in assigning higher priority to virtual links with smaller BAG thus corresponding to the well known Rate-Monotonic Algorithm. Furthermore, schedulability criterion are established based on RTA. Additionally, delay bound computation indicates that response time analysis provides a tighter delay bound than that obtained by Network Calculus.
2012-03-21
Video
As a result of recommendation from the Augustine Panel, the direction for Human Space Flight has been altered from the original plan referred to as Constellation. NASA's Human Exploration Framework Team (HEFT) proposes the use of a Shuttle Derived Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (SDLV) and an Orion derived spacecraft (salvaged from Constellation) to support a new flexible direction for space exploration. The SDLV must be developed within an environment of a constrained budget and a preferred fast development schedule. Thus, it has been proposed to utilize existing assets from the Shuttle Program to speed development at a lower cost. These existing assets should not only include structures such as external tanks or solid rockets, but also the Flight Software which has traditionally been a ?long pole? in new development efforts. The avionics and software for the Space Shuttle was primarily developed in the 70's and considered state of the art for that time. As one may argue that the existing avionics and flight software may be too outdated to support the new SDLV effort, this is a fallacy if they can be evolved over time into a modern avionics platform.
2012-03-21
Video
Design and Development of a Terabyte of Data Storage for Spaceflight. Presenter Chris Thames, NASA
2012-03-21
Video
Optical fiber has begun replacing copper in avionic networks. So far, however, it has been mainly restricted to non-critical applications (video transmission to the flight deck, IFE?). In order to take advantage of the high-bandwidth, low weight, no EMI properties of optical fibers in all data transmission networks, it will be necessary to improve the testing. One part of the puzzle, which is still missing, is the self-test button: the possibility to check the network and detect potential failures before they occur. The typical testing tool of a technician involved in optical fiber cables is the ?light source ? optical power meter? pair. With this tool, one can measure the insertion loss of the fiber link. A second important parameter, the return loss at each optical connector, is not analysed. In addition, this is only a global measurement, which does not allow the detection of possible weak points. Finally, there is no way to test the network once it is in use, except by opening both ends to insert the tools.
2012-03-21
Video
The System Architecture Virtual Integration (SAVI) program is a collaboration of industry, government, and academic organizations within the Aerospace Vehicle System Institute (AVSI) with the goal of structuring a new integration process that relies on a single-truth architectural framework. The SAVI approach of Integrate, then Build provides a modern distributed development environment which arrests the propagation of requirements errors through the development life cycle. It does so by capturing design assumptions and shared properties of the system design in an authoritative, annotated architectural model. This reference model provides a common, analyzable framework for confirming that system requirements remain complete, consistent, and correct at all levels of system decomposition. Core concepts of SAVI include extensive use of model-based system engineering tools and use of a single-truth reference architectural model. From the outset SAVI developers anticipated that a quantified prediction of the productivity of the SAVI Virtual Integration Process (VIP) would be necessary to close the business case for using it.
2012-03-21
Video
Edgewater Computer Systems Inc. product RTEdge Platform 1.2 is a software toolset supporting proof based engineering, implementation and deployment of software components, built using the RTEdge AADL Microkernel modeling subset. This is a small subset of the AADL component model and execution semantics, covering threads and thread-groups communicating solely through asynchronous event ports and through explicitly shared data ports. Threads behavior is expressed as state machines and dispatch run time semantics is encoded in a Run-time Executive, enforcing pre-emptive priority dispatch based on statically assigned event priorities, with ceiling priority protocol access to shared data. This simple AADL microkernel semantic core can support all dispatch policies, communication and synchronization mechanisms of a fully fledged AADL run time environment, permitting the systematic use of the RTEdge static analysis tools for AADL compliant software components. The objective of our work was to integrate RTEdge Platform 1.2 with the Promela / Spin model checker, for the purpose enabling formal verification of user defined formal properties, expressed on software application models built and executed on the RTEdge AADL Microkernel.
2012-03-21
Video
TAUPE is a collaborative research project co-funded by the European Commission in the framework of the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). It addresses the aeronautic sector and is composed of 17 partners from 6 European countries. The project lasts 3,5 years (September 2008 ? February 2012), is led by Safran Engineering Services (Labinal, SAFRAN Group) and has a budget of 5.5M?. The project aims to simplify the electrical architecture of aircraft and to reduce the length and mass of cabling by introducing PLC (PowerLine Communication) or PoD (Power over Data) technologies inside the aircraft. Both technologies essentially aim to supply power and data over the same cable. The TAUPE results will address the ACARE SRA, particularly concerning: - weight reduction - easy and cost effective installation and retrofit - cost effective maintenance The presentation will introduce the project, highlight the issues raised by the implementation of such technologies in the aircraft environment, show the scientific approach considered in the project and the results obtained so far.
2012-03-19
Video
By introducing the concept of a separation between graphics and logic, interpreted run time architecture, and defined communication protocol, the ARINC 661 standard has addressed many of the concerns that aircraft manufacturers face when creating cockpit avionics displays. However, before kicking off a project based on the standard, it is important to understand all aspects of the standard, as well as the benefits and occasional drawbacks of developing with ARINC 661 in mind. This white paper will first provide an overview of ARINC 661 to clarify its concepts and how these relate to the development process. The paper will also describe the benefits of using a distributed development approach, and will outline practical, real world considerations for implementing an ARINC 661-based solution. Finally, readers will learn how commercial tools can be used to simplify the creation of displays following the standard to speed development and reduce costs. Presenter Matthew Jackson , Presagis Inc.
2012-03-19
Video
A series of flight tests were conducted to design and evaluate a Combined Vision System (CVS) that integrates a forward looking infrared video image with synthetic vision on a primary flight display. System features included colorizing the video image to mesh with the synthetic terrain background, decluttering the approach symbology to facilitate the detection of the approach lights and runway markings, creating a semi-transparent IR sky to ensure continuous situational awareness of the surrounding terrain, and annunciating the decision height to facilitate the transition to the actual runway environment. Over 100 approaches were flown during three flight test sessions. For the first flight test session pilots reviewed early CVS proofs of concept on Honeywell's Citation Sovereign. During the approach in low visibility conditions, the Pilot Flying remained head-down to 100 ft AGL, at which time he lifted his head and made a subjective judgment of whether he could easily and safely complete the transition to land before making a go-around.
2012-03-19
Video
Use of airborne high resolution digital sensor imagery is ever increasing. Color HDTV, infrared cameras and radar are examples of such sensors. And they are becoming increasingly used for mission purposes by the military, police, customs and coast guard onboard helicopters and fixed wing aircraft. These users have requirements for onboard presentation, analysis and storage. Use of weather radars and other similar types of sensors are flight oriented applications in major types of aircraft. Another application is the integration of cockpit and cabin surveillance systems onboard commercial airlines. Cabin surveillance systems, growing from cockpit door cameras to complete cabin surveillance, will use several cameras. The purpose is to acquire and store imagery from un-normal events including unruly passengers and eventual terrorists. The primary intentions are security awareness in the cockpit as well as collecting evidence for a potential prosecution. Further advancement may include image library technologies, high level image processing, anomaly detection and data link connections.
2012-03-16
Video
With the growing use of carbon fiber composite structure in Aircraft Manufacturing, the challenge of drilling carbon fiber stacked with Titanium has become a focus point. Due to the abrasive nature of the carbon fiber (CF), cutting tool life is relatively short when drilling carbon fiber stalked with Titanium. A common drill wear indicator is exit burr formation in the Titanium. As drilling tools wear due to the abrasive nature of the CF, the exit burr in the in the Titanium increases. This study seeks to understand the factors that lead to tool wear and exit burr formation. A correlation may be made relating drilling thrust forces with exit burr formation. Different cutting tools geometries and materials are studied using a high speed camera to attempt to understand the factors influencing exit burr formation. Findings are optimized and tested. Decreasing exit burr in the drilling of CF and Titanium may increase tool life thereby reducing tool costs to airframe manufacturers. Authors Richard Garrick-Precorp Hans Juergen Borchers- Precorp Jeremy Bunting- Sandvik Coromant John Dredge- Precorp Presenter Aaron Howcroft, Precorp Inc.
2012-03-16
Video
Probabilistic methods are used in calculating composite part design factors for, and are intended to conservatively compensate for worst case impact to composite parts used on space and aerospace vehicles. The current method to investigate impact damage of composite parts is visual based upon observation of an indentation. A more reliable and accurate determinant of impact damage is to measure impact energy. RF impact sensors can be used to gather data to establish an impact damage benchmark for deterministic design criteria that will reduce material applied to composite parts to compensate for uncertainties resulting from observed impact damage. Once the benchmark has been established, RF impact sensors will be applied to composite parts throughout their life-cycle to alert and identify the location of impact damage that exceeds the maximum established benchmark for impact. This paper will describe and illustrate how weight and manufacturing costs can be reduced by eliminating uncertainties associated with impact damage to composite parts for aerospace vehicles.
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